Sephardic Mountain Dwellers and Baby Goat Devils: Compensation and Adaption of Cultural Allusion in Mexican Storytelling

In the art of transforming one language into another, a misguided belief persists that translation is mechanical and that perfect equivalence exists between any and all of them.  crucial is not how it works, much to the chagrin of translation buyers and translators alike. Taking their understanding of each culture, including political implications and intent of the author, and applying it to the target culture in context, a translator, not a machine without the ability to understand the nuance of language and even emotions, is the key to providing a culturally accurate translation. In high-stakes situations, a miscommunication could have long-term and far-reaching political consequences such as the We will bury you! incident that occurred at the diplomatic reception in the Polish embassy in Moscow during the Khrushchev era in 1956 or the Death to America indoctrination that has been referenced ad nauseam since the beginning of the Iranian Revolution in 1979. The remnants of these two mistranslations, perhaps purposefully uttered for political intrigue, are still very much a part of the political-propaganda sphere today. Translators play an essential role in that their choices and situational understanding significantly influence perception cross-culturally.

Recently, I was contacted to translate an article from the column Veneno Puro by the Mexican journalist Rafael Loret de Mola, who had some very critical opinions of the intrigue that surrounds the politics, drug trade, and their effect on and interaction with the militia movements of Mexico, both old and new. His opinions are conveyed in a sardonic rant, which outlines the history of the cooperation that exists between wealthy elites and crime bosses of Mexico.

Americans and Mexicans have opinions of each other – this is merely the fact. As a translator though, it is vital to be completely unaffected by such tribally predicated notions, but also to be cognizant of them as they play a role in how the information would be best presented. It is my job to accurately translate Loret de Mola’s work into my native culture, without the interference of American stereotypes (at least, in as much as it is possible to do so). His words are his own, and as a translator, I am not allowed to act as a political pundit and spin the article toward any particular narrative that may be informed by personal politics. When it comes to the content of the author’s ideas and words it is not my job as the translator to have an opinion, it is my job to convey intent.

Words have the power to evoke emotion. From the propaganda of media to utterances of love and hate – the meanings of words in context shape society, and if they don’t shape it, they certainly help to create and give definition to a feeling, narrative, or concept that is of particular importance within its source paradigm. When translating these words into a target paradigm, there is not always an exact 1:1 equivalence. The most a translator can hope to achieve is being as close to the meaning as possible. If two people communicate with a third who acts as the medium for communication and understanding, much trust is put in this third party. This trust gives a translator a tremendous amount of power, and he/she must make difficult decisions at times.

The first concept that presented some difficulty in Loret de Mola’s article was ladino. This word does exist in English and is most often used to describe the Judeo-Spanish language spoken by Sephardic Jews. However, in the context of the article, it seemed natural that this was not the intention of the author.

No se olvide que “El Chapo” huyó, sobre el techo de un taxi, del aeropuerto de Guadalajara luego del magnicidio contra el Cardenal Posadas y fue a refugiarse al linde entre México y Guatemala, por las Cañadas, muy cerca de donde pululaban los indígenas con pasamontañas adiestrados por los “ladinos” aposentados de la sierra y con armas compradas, a precios de oferta, en el mercado negro promocionado por mandos medios del ejército. La detención del mismo, el 10 de junio de 1993, apenas dieciocho días después de los sucesos de Jalisco, sitúa la escena narrada entre estos dos hechos de manera muy significativa.1

In the original Spanish, the author describes the ladinos quite artistically; however, one must remember that the original article was written for a Mexican audience. Since he defines this group as “indigenous” and “from the mountains,” in the Spanish, one could not allow the translation to borrow the word directly for use in the English translation. In Central America, Ladino natural as a group of people who are of mixed ethnic heritage (Spanish and Indigenous) that live in areas of Mexico and Guatemala. In English, we have another word for this group of people – Mestizo. It might, in some cases, be okay to swap these two words and assume they have a close enough meaning in each respective culture. However, in the case of Loret de Mola, the term needs adaptation rather than simple translation.

In the article, ladinos is in quotes. This literary practice is often used to allude to a secondary, indirect or dubious connotation. The use of quotation marks to indicate a new word or a direct quote was not what the author intended. One comes to this conclusion through the understanding that ladino is a word used commonly in Mexican vernacular and throughout Central America. As a result of knowing this, a translator should question why the word is in quotes and whether there is something else the author is trying to convey. Loret de Mola’s writing style indicated that there was some underlying meaning to which he was leading the reader.

In the era of Mexican history (1993), which Loret de Mola references at the beginning of his article, society was tumultuous.  The economy was struggling, the drug trade was already well-established as a formidable force in politics, and there were militia movements within Mexico that were strongly anti-government and anti-PRI (the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which had maintained power in Mexico between 1929 and 2000). Against this backdrop of knowledge, what Loret de Mola seems to be alluding to is made more transparent when he points out the location and actions of the group in his narrative “…adiestrados por los “ladinos” aposentados de la sierra y con armas compradas…” The ladinos were guerrillas and guerrilla trainers.

The question that came to me in this instant was whether it was pertinent to present the idea of ethnicity in the target language. Unlike Mexican society with its very strict class hierarchy, race is a more significant focus in United States society with class distinctions playing a comparatively minor role. Mestizo, while a concept in English, is not defined as a racial group in the United States, as such, and holds no positive or negative connotation in the collective mind of society. Additionally, one must consider whether the author is attempting to incite a racial or ethnic bias through this literary allusion. Having read the article, it seemed that the author was, in fact, criticizing the actions of the Mexican government and the effects thereof on the lower castes of his society that drove them to the militia movements. He was not criticizing the ethnic ladinos for being ethnic ladinos.

Would the final translation of Loret de Mola’s narrative benefit from this ethnic distinction in English? He was employing allusion after all, and the use of this literary mechanism worked well for Mexican Spanish. However, to maintain Loret de Mola’s distinction in translation would be of no benefit to his work nor his message because using “Mestizo” would be understood as a race-based distinction in the United States, whose relationship with race is very different than that of Mexico. Since race tensions are seemingly a never-ending and, at times, insurmountable aspect of American culture, I chose, as the translator, to render ladinos not with the near equivalent English “Mestizos,” but rather with the intended meaning of the author, “guerrillas.” Choosing to translate this as “Mestizo” would not have conveyed allusion of “guerrilla” given that in the United States Mestizos are not commonly associated with guerrilla groups, which, in the American understanding, are exclusively understood to be a Latin American phenomenon. Even the idea of a “militia member” differs enough from that of a “guerrilla” that it would not have been near enough in meaning to use the former in the context of the author’s commentary. As a result, the allusion could not be maintained and adapting for the target audience took precedence to preserve the integrity of the author’s message.

Don’t forget that El Chapo fled the Guadalajara airport on the roof of a taxi after the assassination of Cardinal Posadas and was to take refuge along the border of Mexico and Guatemala, by the Canyons, very near where the indigenous fighters were swarming in ski masks and being trained by the retired guerrillas in the mountains with arms bought at a bargain on the black market and advertised by mid-level commanders in the army.

Of course, there was another instance within this article of a word that is used in both Mexican and American culture. In both cultures the word junior has various uses depending on context; the meanings of which are not always equivalent. Juniors intocables literally translated could be rendered as “untouchable juniors:” however, as with ladino, there are different cultural assumptions and connotations between Mexico and the United States. In the context of the author’s commentary, junior refers to the children of the rich political elite and the crime bosses of Mexico. While the meaning of “child” or “a name used to refer to a descendant, son in singular, or children in plural” does exist in both paradigms, the idea that these decedents being only of the “elite” does not exist on a massive level in the United States.

The Mexican understanding of a junior (taking into account the additional information about the wealthy elite families of Mexico provided in the article itself) could be rendered in English as “rich kid,” and Loret de Mola’s intended meaning would be very clear. However, as the meaning is apparent and unhidden in Mexican Spanish, the translation of this word provided an opportunity to compensate for the loss of the allusion presented with the author’s previous use of ladinos. By translating juniors simply as “kids,” there is an underlying allusory meaning in American English.

One meaning of “kid” in English is “baby goat.” Goats are also the animal that is most often associated with the Abrahamic religions’ construct of the devil – a useful bit of information regarding American culture. Having chosen the adjective intocable, it is apparent that the author does not intend to be gentle in delivering his criticism relating to the children of rich elites, who he posits as nefarious characters. Using “kid” to mean “child” instead of the more specific intended meaning of “rich kid,” allows for compensation in that the literary allusion lost in the translation of ladinos can now be re-introduced in another part of the target text. Overall, this is beneficial to maintaining the integrity of the author’s style of writing by allowing the American English reader to consider the underlying meaning, of “kid” just as the Mexican Spanish reader had been able to do with ladinos.

One must always keep in mind that translation is an art, even if a text is non-artistic. Turnaround time is critical, accuracy is fundamental, and maintaining the intention of the source content in the target output cannot be discounted. In the case of Loret de Mola’s article, understanding cultural nuances in the Mexican context played the most crucial role in the translation of the article. As the translator, I was required to be very focused on the author’s style, intent, and overall goal. Simply, ignoring the strict cultural nuance would not have done the article justice. Adapting fully and thereby erasing the fact the article is about Mexico was not an option either.  The middle ground seems to be unattainable at times, but with the right effort, it is entirely feasible to remain faithful to the source text while translating style, nuance, and intent accurately not just from language to language, but from culture to culture.


The Unassuming Bei: Prepositional Versitility

Jesus Christ and all the saints, Mary, Jospeh, Allah, Buddah and Vishnu – is there a more versatile word in the German language? Well, probably, there is – but, we are going to look at this one and dig beneath the surface to begin a journey of understanding. Bei is perceived by most as a boring connecting word that requires little thought and the translation of which is lacking in complexity, which often leads to translators not giving it the amount of attention, or even respect, that is required to ensure it is rendered correctly.

Seemingly unassuming, the German preposition bei is utilized in many different ways. Understanding its meaning in context is incredibly important, but because of its similar sound and occasional equivalent meaning of the English “by,” it is often glossed over by translators and editors alike. However, this three-letter word has the potential to wreak havoc when not properly respected. For this reason, it is important to understand the meaning of this preposition in context before brushing it aside as a simple expression of time, location, or direction of a preceding phrase.

One of the criticism of language education, at least in the United States, is the idea that language is akin to simple math – addition and subtraction. Though this link is not untrue, language is not finite and despite the desire for all language to be proscriptive, this simply cannot be enforced. Interestingly enough, however, it is in the plethora of meanings that can be assigned to prepositions, conjunctions, and other linking grammatical units that are the nearest to proscriptive that one can get with any hope of such proscription of language being legitimized or enduring.  The initial focus of learning a language is on understanding tenses, irregular forms of verbs, and idiomatic expressions, and building vocabulary by memorizing one-to-one equivalencies between the languages at the word level. If one studies for long enough, though, it becomes quite clear that language is more like algebra with tons of variables and different ways to get to the same result. While this is important, one must also spend a fair amount of time accepting the fact: there is no one-to-one equivalency for any preposition between two languages.

When I studied German I distinctly remember that my professors in college expressly taught me that bei should be thought of as the second way that German speakers express the concept of “with.” That was it – no more explanation. Post-lecture my friends and I (the other language nerds) would giggle and really wonder why German speakers needed 2 words for “with.” Was one superior to the other? Well, not really, it just seems one is more common, mit, and the other less common, bei. has outlined the basic meanings of bei and gives very clear and concise examples of its everyday vernacular use – very often meaning “at,” “during,” or “near” and, yes, even “by.”


Ich bin bei Mutti.

I am at Mom’s.

Die Bettdecke ist günstiger bei Macy’s

The duvet costs less at Macy‘s


Bei Fastenzeit hat meine Familie kein Brot gegessen.

During Lent my family didn’t eat any bread.


Wartet der Reiseleiter bei dem rechtem Eingang des Bahnhofs oder dem linken?

Is the tour guide waiting near/by the right entrance to the train station?

With (#2)

Ein Anwalt für Mietrecht hilft bei Streitigkeiten zwischen Mieter und Vermieter?

A tenant law attorney helps with disputes between renters and landlords.

As a translator working in the medical field where I am encountered by a significant amount of patient medical reports, I found myself in a bind one day when the English I was translating just didn’t make any sense. Though I followed what I knew to be the translation for bei it just did not work, and I refused to send nonsense English to my client.

The most popular English equivalents of bei may not be particularly fluent sounding if used directly in a translation itself. This, of course, is simultaneously the bane of the translator’s existence as well as the coolest thing about being a translator (granted, it might only be me who finds this cool). So, in order to make a translation sound fluent in the target language, it is important to really hone in on the conceptual meaning.

inclusion within something abstract or non-finite

Weltweit tritt Asthma bei Kindern am häufigsten in Australien, Neuseeland und Großbritannien auf, am seltensten hingegen in Entwicklungsländern und osteuropäischen Regionen.1

Globally, asthma in children most often occurs in Australia, New Zealand, and Great Britain, but is least common in developing countries and eastern European regions.

Lebensgewohnheiten und -umstände scheinen bei der Entwicklung der Krankheit eine große Rolle zu spielen.2

Lifestyle and environment seem to play an important role in the development of the disease.

Bei unter 75-jährigen Menschen spielen insbesondere die extrinsischen Risikofaktoren eine bedeutende Rolle.3

For people under 75 years of age external risk factors play a particularly significant role.

in conjunction with, but not the direct cause of

Ältere stürzen besonders häufig bei alltäglichen Aktivitäten, meist ohne das Bewusstsein zu verlieren und ohne Einwirkung äußerer Kräfte.4

It is particularly common for elderly people to experience a fall in conjunction with everyday activities, usually without the influence of external forces and without losing consciousness.

Elderly people fall rather commonly in the course of every day activity, most often there is neither an external force which causes this nor do they lose consciousness.

as a result of; being caused by;

Besonders gefährlich wird ein Raucherbein bei einem akuten Verschluss eines arteriellen Gefäßes.5

Caused by an acute occlusion of an arterial vessel, “smoker’s leg” is particularly dangerous.

Radikale Mastektomie bei Brustkrebs ist die vollständige Entfernung der es mit der Haut, des Pectoralis major Muskelfaser aus der Achsel-Lymphknoten und infraklavikuläre Regionen.6

Radical mastectomy due to breast cancer consists of the complete removal of the breast, its skin, and the pectoralis major muscle fibers from the lymph nodes of the axilla and the infraclavicular regions.

Hab mir auch erst Sorgen gemacht weil die Symptome wirklich ganz wie bei meinem Pneumothorax waren

I’m seriously worried because the symptoms were really completely like the ones I had because of a collapsed lung.

to indicate suitability

Beispielhaft erwähnt sei die Anwendung des prototypischen Cholinesterase-Inhibitors Physostigmin bei diesbezüglichen Komplikationen mit nichtnarkotisch wirkenden Akut-Sedativa.7

An example of this is the use of physostigmine, a prototypic cholinesterase inhibitor for complications associated with non-narcotic acute sedatives.

Too often, L2 speakers and translators have this problem – we strive subconsciously to make the teacher who taught us happy by using their one-to-one equivalency. This is also impacted by the x-phile (germanophile, sinophile, etc.) attitude of many language teachers and students. This attitude leads to us to try to maintain the source language character or culture in the target language. Despite this desire, the common outcome is a target language translation that at best sounds odd and may be frustrating to read, and, at the worst, like near-nonsense in the target language. Avoiding the nonsense is possible though, one must remember the skopos of their project, which in most cases is to render a target translation that is both linguistically and culturally fluent.

The purpose of translation is not to necessarily place the source or the target above one another, but to accurately render the concepts of each linguistic paradigm equivalently and fluently. Clients are most often less concerned with how much a person loves a certain culture and more concerned with realizing their business goals that underly their need for translation in the first place. Mistranslating a preposition like bei can actually create significant problems.  Thus, the common words require more attention to ensure they are accurately rendered and provide the correct information of relation that was intended by the original author.

Here is another way to think about it. German is full of what many non-German natives would describe as quite interesting and ostentatious compounded words that have lots of components to them on the surface, like Kaftfahrzeug-Haftpflichtversicherung (motor vehicle liability insurance). However, usually with such large words, there is no deeper meaning. They are the Kardashians of words, as it were. However, it is the humble and common words that have the most impact.  Think of words like bei like Meryl Streep – modest and versatile.

  2. Ibid.